Ventilation for control of the work environment
Daylighting is the controlled admission of natural light into a space through windows to reduce or eliminate electric lighting. By providing a link to the perpetually changing patterns of light outdoors, daylighting helps create a visually stimulating and productive environment for building occupants, while reducing as much as one-third of total building energy costs.
Daylighting has the potential to significantly improve life cycle cost, increase user productivity, reduce emissions, and reduce operating costs. The daylighting design process involves the integration of many disciplines including architectural, mechanical, electrical, and lighting.
The art and science of proper daylighting design is not so much how to provide enough daylight to an occupied space, but how to do so without any undesirable side effects. It involves more than just adding windows or skylights to a space. It is the careful balancing of heat gain and loss, glare control, and variations in daylight availability.
For example, successful daylighting designs will invariably pay close attention to the use of shading devices to reduce glare and excess contrast in the workspace. Additionally, window size and spacing, glass selection, the reflectance of interior finishes and the location of any interior partitions must all be evaluated. An awareness of basic visual acuity and performance issues is essential to an effective daylighting design.
- Daylight first.
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Introduce as much controlled daylight as deep as possible into a building interior. The human eye can adjust to high levels of luminance as long as it is evenly distributed. Light which reaches a task indirectly such as having bounced from a white wall will provide better lighting quality than light, which arrives directly from a natural or artificial source. Glare, or excessive brightness contrast within the field of view, can cause discomfort.
The human eye can function quite well over a wide range of luminous environments, but does not function well if extreme levels of brightness are present in the same field of view. Veiling reflections of high brightness light sources off shiny surfaces should be avoided, particularly where critical visual tasks occur. Some contrast in brightness levels may be desirable in a space for visual effectiveness. Dull uniformity in lighting can lead to tiredness and lack of attention — neither of which is compatible with a productive environment.
While many of us tend to think of ventilation as the introduction of outdoor air, ventilation is actually a combination of processes, which results in the supply and removal of air from inside a building. These processes include bringing in outdoor air, conditioning and mixing the outdoor air with some portion of indoor air, distributing this mixed air throughout the building, and exhausting some portion of the indoor air outside.
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The quality of indoor air may deteriorate when one or more of these processes is inadequate. For example, carbon dioxide a gas that is produced when people breathe , may accumulate in building spaces if sufficient amounts of outdoor air are not brought into and distributed throughout the building. Carbon dioxide is a surrogate for indoor pollutants that may cause occupants to grow drowsy, get headaches, or function at lower activity levels.
Ventilation Control Work Environment by William Burgess
There are many potential sources of indoor air pollution, which may singly, or in combination, produce other adverse health effects. However, the proper design, operation and maintenance of the ventilation system is essential in providing indoor air that is free of harmful concentrations of pollutants. Indoor air pollution is caused by an accumulation of contaminants.
Sources of indoor air pollution include tobacco smoke, biological organisms, building materials and furnishings, cleaning agents, copy machines, and pesticides. Control of pollutants at the source is the most effective means of promoting indoor air quality. This gives workers an easy way to tell if the LEV is working properly. The table below gives typical flow rates or capture velocities required to properly capture varying types of airborne contaminants:. Air monitoring will determine if the LEV is working properly i. This should be done by a competent person such as an occupational hygienist.
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Working Conditions – Ventilation and Lighting
Fume cupboards Spray booths On-tool extraction and industrial vacuum cleaners Inspection, testing and maintenance Further information What is local exhaust ventilation LEV? Use LEV to: capture contaminants at the source and remove them from the work area. This is particularly important with very toxic substances handle many types of contaminants including dusts and metal fumes reduce the amount of makeup air as small amounts of air are being exhausted lower energy costs as there is less makeup air to heat or cool in indoor workplaces. What type of LEV do I need?
On-tool extraction and industrial vacuum cleaners In order to safely capture and contain dusts, use the right kind of industrial vacuum cleaner. Examples include: calcium carbonate e. M medium hazard Dusts with a workplace exposure standard greater than or equal to 0. Examples include: chromium hard and soft wood dusts.
Ventilation for Control of the Work Environment : William A. Burgess :
H high hazard Dusts with a workplace exposure standard less than 0. Examples include: respirable crystalline silica RCS e. Inspection, testing and maintenance Regular inspection, testing and maintenance of LEV systems is critical.