Professional Development, Reflection and Enquiry

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Paul Chapman Publishing. Tell us if something is incorrect. Add to Cart. Hurst, B. Professional teaching portfolios. Phi Delta Kappan, 79 8 , Kettle B. The development of student teachers practical theory of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 12 1 , EJ Licklider, B.

Professional Development, Reflection and Enquiry

Breaking ranks: Changing the in-service institution. Ojanen, S. A process in which personal pedagogical knowledge is created through the teacher education experience. Rearick, M. Educational researchers, practitioners, and students of teaching reflect on experience, practice, and theories: Action research in a pre-service course.

Schon, D. Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Syrjala, L. The teacher as a researcher.

In Childhood Education: International Perspectives. Eeva Hujala. Uzat, S. Cognitive coaching and self-reflection: Looking in the mirror while looking through the window. New Orleans, LA. Weiss, E. New directions in teacher evaluation. Wilhelm, R. The effects of a professional development institute on pre-service teachers' perceptions of their intercultural knowledge and diversity. Teacher Educator, 32 1 , Journal articles EJ should be available at most research libraries; most documents ED are available in microfiche collections at more than locations.

This feature: Reflective Practice and Professional Development. References Antonek, J. EJ Boud, D. EJ Clarke, A. EJ Clift, R. ED Harris, A. EJ Hopkins, C.

Professional Development, Reflection and Enquiry : Christine Forde :

EJ Kettle B. EJ Ojanen, S. Within a profession we recognize others by their adherence to the norms and values of that profession. During initial teacher education, learning to teach is partly about constructing a professional identity that we are comfortable with, but one which also allows us to feel and be recognized as part of a professional community.

Philip Gardner undertook a historical study as to how teacher professional identity was formed in early twentieth-century England Gardner, This study centred around a time when teacher training was moving from schools to training institutions and where the professional image of the teacher was changing as a result. An interesting aspect of this study is that Gardner uses the voices of the teachers themselves to reflect upon their identities and how these were formed. Many of these teachers undertook the transition from untrained to trained while working in schools.

But the interviewees felt that there was a difference in approach to the teaching role: those who were college trained tended to see that as being all the professional education they needed. The uncertificated teacher, on the other hand, tended to see professional learning as something undertaken throughout a career What college induction did was to consolidate professional identity both at an individual and group level.

Thus a specific image of the professional was created within these groups: one who is knowledgeable, virtuous and expert. It has therefore long been recognized that professional identity can be shaped in part by the education that is designed to induct people into a profession.

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They mention the sense of consistency in professional identity that was a feature of the s and s. They look at the effects on teacher identity of the challenges to child-centred education, perceptions of a loss of trust or a change in the nature of trust — see Avis, and changes in the role of the teacher. Woods and Jeffrey conclude that teachers have seen their role reduced to a list of competences and performativities. In trying to make sense of their professional role, teachers may be forced to assume multiple identities to meet competing demands and expectations, and this can lead to a sense of volatility and uncertainty Woods and Jeffrey, Beijaard et al.

They looked at subject-matter expertise, didactical expertise and pedagogical expertise — the teacher not only as expert in terms of what was taught, but also in terms of how it was taught and how the learners were understood. Most of the teachers saw themselves in terms of a combination of these identities, although it was interesting that many perceived a transition from subject expertise towards learning expertise as their careers developed.

Similarly, Volkmann and Anderson discuss the development of identity in relation to chemistry teaching. Their conclusion is that the formation of teacher identity is a complex issue, which involves not only the identity of the teacher as a scientist, but also issues of conflict, dilemma and mentoring. These communities have multiple functions, including functions of learning, collaboration and negotiation. These functions contribute to the formation of identity as participant and learner, because they develop within a range of contexts such as the historical, the cultural, the institutional, and so on.

This belonging may well influence behaviour, thinking, values and attitudes. Professional identity is also affected by the legacy of tradition that surrounds the professional community. The craft tradition represents the idea that teachers use a set of skills and possess a set of abilities which they learn from shared experience in formal and informal ways.

This links with the discourse of teacher training in England and Wales — and to the set of professional skills and abilities which are demanded in Scotland. The moral tradition demands that teachers make professional moral judgements, and that they develop their professional identities to align with an ethical view of their work. The artistic tradition relates to feelings, inspiration and the creative impetus. Though these traditions have changed over time, they continue to coexist and influence understandings of what it means to be a teacher, both in the professional and in the public view.

Other factors can influence identity within professional communities. Managerialist discourses highlight accountability and effectiveness and are enforced by authority. Professionalism and professional identity are defined in terms of compliance with these aspects.

Sachs goes on to advocate the activist identity, where teachers themselves have control within communities of practice. New understandings of identity present us with more complex ways of representing the role of the teacher. Figure 1. Perceptions of self as learning expert Expectations of society Public perceptions and value of schooling Perceptions of self as subject expert Teacher professional identity Managerial and other discourses Communities of practice Induction and professional development Perceptions of autonomy or lack of it Figure 1.

We cannot ignore the role of factors such as gender, ethnicity, culture and social background. However, things may be moving beyond this idea of specificity — in policy, in initial teacher education, in continuing professional development and in schools there is a greater emphasis on generic issues in teaching and learning which moves beyond the boundaries of job title. Identity across professions The complexities inherent in defining identity are evident in many professions, particularly those which have recently sought professional status.

Nurses, like teachers, have to form their professional identities within stressful working environments, and have to deal with management and policy emphases on standards, performance and outcomes. In addition, the development of nursing into a degree-based profession has challenged nurses to reconceptualize their roles within complex and changing medical contexts. The onslaught of these changing contexts has led Stronach et al. Therefore, professional identity is negotiated within situations where identity is affected by dilemmas and difficulties that are often outside the control of the individual.

While there is no agreed definition of what it is, and what it means, to be a teacher or a nurse, there are broadly accepted personal, professional and academic elements.

However, for each individual, personal satisfaction and professional identity may not rest on specific constructs. Ohlen and Segesten found that professional identity in nurses was strongly related to other personal identities — to, for example, gender identities and self-esteem. In other words, a defining moment in our recognition of professional identity may be the moment we feel like a nurse or a teacher.

Professional identity is therefore a highly personalized construct and one which rests, in part, on our feelings and attitudes about the job we do. Job satisfaction and motivation are based on such affective elements. This is particularly the case in jobs which require a strong element of personal involvement or commitment to others, such as teaching and nursing. In addition, levels of self-esteem can be affected long before qualified status is gained. In a study of student nurses in Ireland, Begley and White found that reported levels of self-esteem rose among students as their nursing course progressed, but that by the end of the course levels of self-esteem only reached average levels.

Indeed, other studies actually show decreased levels of self-esteem among student nurses as they approach registration and qualification Begley and White, Given the importance of higher levels of self-esteem to coping with workplace stress Begley and White, it would seem that to begin your career with self-esteem issues may not augur well for personal wellbeing and professional satisfaction.

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In addition, Andersson found that nurses brought with them perceptions of what it was like to be a nurse on entry to the profession, and that these perceptions remained with a majority throughout their training period, as they hung on to a traditional nurse identity and image. Similarly, much has been said about the importance of reflection in nursing and teaching see Maich et al.